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This article reviews genetic studies of stroke, bearing insight into human evidence by using studies on twins as well as on monogenic forms of stroke. Focus will be given to inbred animal models that have been used to improve genetic homogeneity and to control environmental influences. Such animal studies have lead to the identification of quantitative trait loci harboring putative genes for stroke susceptibility and sensitivity. The major strategies for gene identification are discussed. Experimental animal models of stroke have also revealed a sexual dimorphism in stroke susceptibility and sensitivity and this article reviews 2 possible candidates, namely, the Y chromosome and estrogens. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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☆Supported by the British Heart Foundation (Programme Grant No. RG/97009 and Project Grant Nos. PG200023 and PG200051) to A.F.D. and the Wellcome Trust (Project Grant No. 057306/Z/99/Z) to A.F.D. and I.M.M.
☆☆Address reprint requests to Anna F. Dominiczak, MD, BHF Blood Pressure Group, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, G11 6NT.
© 2002 Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.