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Renal Disease in Recipients of Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation

  • Akinlolu O. Ojo
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Akinlolu O. Ojo, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3914 Taubman Center, Box 0364, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0364.
    Affiliations
    Division of Nephrology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
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      Summary

      Worldwide, more than 250,000 individuals who have received a liver, heart, lung, or intestinal transplant are living longer. Twenty percent to 25% of these recipients experience perioperative acute renal failure, with 10% to 15% requiring renal replacement therapy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also highly prevalent, affecting 30% to 50% of the nonrenal organ transplant population with an annual end-stage renal disease risk of 1.5% to 2.0%. Both acute renal failure and CKD contribute to increased morbidity and premature mortality. The dominant causative factor for renal disorders seen in nonrenal transplant recipients are the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and rapamycin analogues, which singly or in combination lead to a variety of nephrotoxic injury. However, 25% to 30% of nonrenal transplant recipients with CKD have other conditions such as hypertension, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis C infection as the principal underlying cause. Management strategies for renal disease in the nonrenal transplant recipients include the following: (1) delayed introduction of CNI after graft implantation, (2) withdrawal or minimization of long-term CNI therapy, (3) timely use of an appropriate dialysis modality, and (4) expeditious introduction of supportive measures such as anemia management, phosphate binding therapy, and dietary modification. Compared with maintenance dialysis, kidney transplantation reduces long-term mortality by 60% to 70% in nonrenal transplant recipients with end-stage renal disease.

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