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Antibody-Mediated Rejection

      Summary

      The introduction of both complement 4d (C4d) staining in renal allograft biopsies and sensitive methods to detect anti–human leukocyte antigen antibodies, such as single antigen bead flow assays, into tissue-typing techniques have shown the importance of antibody-mediated alloimmune response in kidney transplantation. The use of these sensitive methods, combined with the increased number of transplants in highly sensitized patients with donor-specific antibodies, or patients receiving desensitization protocols, have increased the awareness and thus the incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection. Chronic rejection also can be mediated through alloantibodies, and the term chronic antibody-mediated rejection recently was proposed. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge of the role of alloantibodies in transplantation, the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection, and their effect on graft function and outcome.

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