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Introduction: Toward an Anti–Cell Death Therapy for Kidney Transplantation and Kidney Diseases

      The burden of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases as much as hardly any other malady apart from obesity in the United States and pulmonary disorders in China. But in contrast to these two mentioned, the increase in AKI and CKD happens globally as we breathe. Nephrologists are well aware of the tremendous clinical need to define novel concepts, hypotheses, therapeutic targets, drugs, and cures, but instead abandon these developments to their fate instead of translating basic scientific concepts. Given the awareness of the medical disaster of ever-increasing numbers of dialysis treatments and exploding costs for AKI/CKD, it is disappointing to realize the number of approaches to develop novel first-in-class compounds, many of which do not have a ghost of a chance for success. Trials that combine the next best immunosuppressants have failed multiple times and did not change the game. It is time for something new.
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