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Plasma and Urine Biomarkers of CKD: A Review of Findings in the CKiD Study

  • Ibrahim Sandokji
    Affiliations
    Section of Nephrology, Clinical and Translational Research Accelerator, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

    Department of Pediatrics, Taibah University College of Medicine, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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  • Jason H. Greenberg
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests to Jason H. Greenberg, MD, MHS, Section of Nephrology, Clinical and Translational Research Accelerator, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 Temple St, New Haven, CT 06510.
    Affiliations
    Section of Nephrology, Clinical and Translational Research Accelerator, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
    Search for articles by this author
      Summary: Serum creatinine and level of proteinuria, as biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, inadequately explain the variability of glomerular filtration rate decline, and are late markers of glomerular filtration rate decline. Recent studies have identified plasma and urine biomarkers at higher levels in children with CKD and also associate independently with CKD progression, even after adjustment for serum creatinine and proteinuria. These novel biomarkers represent diverse biologic pathways of tubular injury, tubular dysfunction, inflammation, and tubular health, and can be used as a liquid biopsy to better characterize CKD in children. In this review, we highlight the biomarker findings from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort, a large longitudinal study of children with CKD, and compare results with those from other pediatric CKD cohorts. The biomarkers in focus in this review include plasma kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, fibroblast growth factor-23, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, tumor necrosis factor receptor-2, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and chitinase-3-like protein 1, as well as urine epidermal growth factor, α-1 microglobulin, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. Blood and urine biomarkers improve our ability to prognosticate CKD progression and may improve our understanding of CKD pathophysiology. Further research is required to establish how these biomarkers can be used in the clinical setting to improve the clinical management of CKD.

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