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Adverse Consequences of Chronic Kidney Disease on Bone Health in Children

      Summary

      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral bone disorder has long-term effects on skeletal integrity and growth. Abnormalities in serum markers of mineral metabolism are evident early in pediatric CKD. Bone deformities, poor linear growth, and high rates of fractures are common in children with CKD. Newer imaging modalities such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography shows promise in assessing bone mineral density more comprehensively and predicting incident fractures. A lack of large-scale studies that provide a comprehensive assessment of bone histology and correlations with serum biomarkers has contributed to the absence of evidence-based guidelines and suboptimal management of CKD mineral bone disorder in children with CKD.

      Keywords

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