Introduction: Sex and Gender in Kidney Health and Disease: Time for a Paradigm Shift

  • Sofia B. Ahmed
    Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Alberta Kidney Disease Network, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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      Kidney disease is a global epidemic and innovations in prevention and treatment are urgently needed. However, current practices in kidney research and care often use a one-size-fits-all approach, which does not address the specific sex- and gender-based differences in physiology, pathophysiology, presentation, choice of therapies, and response to treatments, all of which impact outcomes.
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